Treatment of Acute Periprosthetic Joint Infection Comparing Single and Planned Double-Debridement Antibiotics and Implant Retention Followed by Chronic Antibiotic Suppression

Study Purpose

The purpose of this research is to evaluate two different standard of care surgeries in treating periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip and knee arthroplasty. Researchers are looking at differences in outcomes following single versus planned double debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) for acutely infected total hip arthroplasty (THA), and total knee arthroplasties (TKAs).

Recruitment Criteria

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Healthy volunteers are participants who do not have a disease or condition, or related conditions or symptoms

Study Type

An interventional clinical study is where participants are assigned to receive one or more interventions (or no intervention) so that researchers can evaluate the effects of the interventions on biomedical or health-related outcomes.

An observational clinical study is where participants identified as belonging to study groups are assessed for biomedical or health outcomes.

Searching Both is inclusive of interventional and observational studies.

Eligible Ages 18 Years and Over
Gender All
More Inclusion & Exclusion Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • - Patients who speak English and are willing to sign the consent form.
  • - Patients with acute early postoperative infection (symptoms ≤ 4 weeks from surgery; symptoms < 4 weeks in duration) and acute hematogenous infection (greater than 4 weeks from surgery; symptoms < 3 weeks in duration) of a primary total knee or total hip arthroplasty, defined as: - A sinus communicating with the prosthesis OR.
  • - Two positive cultures obtained from the prosthesis OR.
  • - 4 of 5 criteria: Elevated ESR (> 30mm/hr) and CRP (> 10mg/L); Elevated synovial leukocyte count (>3000 cells/μL) or change of ++ on; leukocyte esterase strip; Elevated synovial neutrophil percentage (> 80%); One positive culture; Positive histological analysis of periprosthetic tissue (> 5 neutrophils per high; Power field in 5 high power fields x 400).
  • - OR Patient with an acute infection diagnosed clinically by an orthopedic surgeon treated with DAIR.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • - Patients with a chronic PJI, defined as: presentation of symptoms > 4 weeks in duration.
  • - Revision surgery or previous two-stage reimplantation.

Trial Details

Trial ID:

This trial id was obtained from, a service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, providing information on publicly and privately supported clinical studies of human participants with locations in all 50 States and in 196 countries.


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Phase 2: Studies that gather preliminary data on effectiveness (whether the drug works in people who have a certain disease or condition) and additional safety data.

Phase 3: Studies that gather more information about safety and effectiveness by studying different populations and different dosages and by using the drug in combination with other drugs.

Phase 4: Studies occurring after FDA has approved a drug for marketing, efficacy, or optimal use.

Lead Sponsor

The sponsor is the organization or person who oversees the clinical study and is responsible for analyzing the study data.

Mayo Clinic
Principal Investigator

The person who is responsible for the scientific and technical direction of the entire clinical study.

Matthew Abdel, MD
Principal Investigator Affiliation Mayo Clinic
Agency Class

Category of organization(s) involved as sponsor (and collaborator) supporting the trial.

Overall Status Enrolling by invitation
Countries United States

The disease, disorder, syndrome, illness, or injury that is being studied.

Periprosthetic Joint Infection
Study Website: View Trial Website
Arms & Interventions


Active Comparator: Single DAIR Surgery Arm

Subjects will undergo a single Debridement Antibiotics and Implant Retention (DAIR) surgical procedure, along with IV antibiotics and followed by oral suppressive antibiotics. This method is currently used and considered to be standard of care.

Active Comparator: Double DAIR Surgery Arm

Subjects will undergo planned double Debridement Antibiotics and Implant Retention (DAIR) surgical procedure, along with IV antibiotics and followed by oral suppressive antibiotics. This method is currently used and considered to be standard of care.


Procedure: - Single Debridement, Antibiotics and Implant Retention

Surgical debridement and wash out of infected joint. The polyethylene (plastic) insert, which acts as the articulating surface (modular component) of the prosthesis, will be removed and the exposed surfaces scrubbed, sterilized, and soaked. A new modular component will be placed with additional irrigation and antiseptic soak. Tissue cultures will be sent to the lab for further evaluation and antibiotic guidance. After the operation subjects will continue six weeks of IV antibiotics followed by oral antibiotic suppression for the life of the implant or at least two years after operation.

Procedure: - Planned Double Debridement, Antibiotics and Implant Retention

Surgical debridement and wash out of infected joint with an additional irrigation and debridement scheduled for approximately 5 days after the initial DAIR. During the first washout, antibiotic cement beads will be placed in the joint and these will remain in the interim until they are removed during the second washout. During the second DAIR, the antibiotic beads are removed, and the modular components are once again removed and replaced with new components. Exposed surfaces are again irrigated and debrided following a standardized protocol. A six-week course of IV antibiotics will follow the DAIR with additional oral antibiotics for the life of the component (standard of care) or at least a minimum of two years.

Contact a Trial Team

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Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, Florida



Mayo Clinic Florida

Jacksonville, Florida, 32224

Mayo Clinic Minnesota, Rochester, Minnesota



Mayo Clinic Minnesota

Rochester, Minnesota, 55905