Serum and Urine Titanium Levels in Children With Early Onset Scoliosis Treated With Growth-Sparing Instrumentation

Study Purpose

The investigators are conducting research to compare serum and urine titanium levels in children with early onset scoliosis who are being treated with certain types of metal spinal rods. These rods include traditional growing rods (TGR), magnetically-controlled growing rods (MCGR), and Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR). Children with metal rods may have elevated serum and urine titanium levels. These levels may remain elevated over time. The investigators will collect serum titanium levels from children with metal rods and children without metal rods to see if there are differences in their titanium levels. The investigators will then collect a second serum titanium level from children with metal rods at least 6 months later to see if the participants titanium levels remain elevated over time. The investigators will also collect urine titanium levels from children with metal rods to see if titanium is excreted in the urine.

Recruitment Criteria

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Healthy volunteers are participants who do not have a disease or condition, or related conditions or symptoms

Study Type

An interventional clinical study is where participants are assigned to receive one or more interventions (or no intervention) so that researchers can evaluate the effects of the interventions on biomedical or health-related outcomes.

An observational clinical study is where participants identified as belonging to study groups are assessed for biomedical or health outcomes.

Searching Both is inclusive of interventional and observational studies.

Observational [Patient Registry]
Eligible Ages 5 Years - 15 Years
Gender All
More Inclusion & Exclusion Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

Cases: Patients with early onset scoliosis treated with traditional growing rods (TGR), magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR), and the Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR). Controls: Patients with operative fractures.

Exclusion Criteria:

Cases: Patients who had a previous limited spinal fusion, conversion from one type of GSI to another, TGR with stainless steel or cobalt chromium instrumentation, and indwelling implants for 6 months or less. Controls: Patients with indwelling implants or prior implant insertion and removal.

Trial Details

Trial ID:

This trial id was obtained from, a service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, providing information on publicly and privately supported clinical studies of human participants with locations in all 50 States and in 196 countries.


Phase 1: Studies that emphasize safety and how the drug is metabolized and excreted in humans.

Phase 2: Studies that gather preliminary data on effectiveness (whether the drug works in people who have a certain disease or condition) and additional safety data.

Phase 3: Studies that gather more information about safety and effectiveness by studying different populations and different dosages and by using the drug in combination with other drugs.

Phase 4: Studies occurring after FDA has approved a drug for marketing, efficacy, or optimal use.

Lead Sponsor

The sponsor is the organization or person who oversees the clinical study and is responsible for analyzing the study data.

University of Michigan
Principal Investigator

The person who is responsible for the scientific and technical direction of the entire clinical study.

Principal Investigator Affiliation N/A
Agency Class

Category of organization(s) involved as sponsor (and collaborator) supporting the trial.

Overall Status Enrolling by invitation
Countries United States

The disease, disorder, syndrome, illness, or injury that is being studied.

Early-Onset Scoliosis Deformity of Spine
Arms & Interventions


: Early onset Scoliosis

Patients with early onset scoliosis treated with growth-sparing instrumentation (TGR, MCGR, and, VEPTR).

: Control group

Patients with operative fractures.


Combination Product: - Growth-sparing instrumentation and titanium levels

Patients with growth-sparing instrumentation as treatment for early onset scoliosis, will have their titanium (serum and urine) levels tested, to evaluated if they have elevated titanium levels compared to a control group.

Contact a Trial Team

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Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan



Michigan Medicine

Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109